Teaching methods and Academic Performance of Pre-primary School Pupils in Physical and Health Education
TEACHING METHODS AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF PRE-PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN PHYSICAL AND HEALTH EDUCATION IN ABAK LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
1.1 Background to the Study
The nation’s overall development is inextricably tied to its educational system since education is a light that shows mankind the right direction to surge. Education can also be seen as a process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, values, norms, traditions, and skills from one generation to another.
Education is any process by which an individual gains knowledge, experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character or physical ability of an individual. The above functions of education cannot be achieved except the school system is conducive for teaching/learning process. To facilitate the process of knowledge transmission, teachers should apply appropriate teaching methods. Teaching is a process that involves bringing about desirable changes in learners so as to achieve specific out-comes.
Teaching methods can be refers to variety of ways in which a learning task is managed to facilitate the learning process. Teaching method could also be seen as a way of carryout the actual teaching in the classroom. Teaching method could also be describe as the general principles, pedagogy and management strategies used for classroom instruction. It can also be defined as the means which the teacher adopts to impart the desired learning or experience to the pupils.
It could be said that there is no suitable teaching method that is generally recommendable to the teachers to be use, but the method to be used at a particular time depends on so many factors such as the age of the learners, the content to be taught, the objectives which the teacher plans to achieve, the availability of teaching/Learning resources, the ability and willingness of the teacher to improvise if conventional teaching aids are not available, evaluation skills, and individual differences of the learner. He therefore asserted that teacher needs to be conversant with numerous teaching methods.
Findings have shown that there is a relationship between teaching methods and pupils’ academic performance. It is true that successful learning depends on various factors that are not teacher-related, but the methods that a teacher uses continue to play an important role in pupils’ learning and in their academic performance.
Teaching methods can be categorized into two broad groups which are; conventional teaching method and psychologically based teaching methods. The conventional teaching methods are teaching methods that have been in use over the years by a classroom teacher. They include; expository/lecture method, discussion method, demonstration method, discovery method, excursion/field-trip method, and simulation/games/role playing method.
While psychologically based teaching methods are method of teaching based on psychological principles consequent upon numerous factors which include: individual differences, interests, needs, and motivation. Psychologically based teaching methods are team teaching, peer to peer technique, individualized instructional and computer assisted instruction.
Pre-primary school is the level of education which is also known as nursery school, kindergarten or play school. It is learning space that offers early childhood education to children before they begin compulsory education. In teaching pupils in this level of education, special method of teaching should be employ. Such teaching methods include: role play method, supervised activity method, demonstration method, game method, drawing method, discussion method, excursion method, story-telling method, and pictorial method.
Physical and Health Education for Pre-Primary schools is designed to help children in developing physical fitness. On the other hand, academic performance is refers to the grade or scores which the learners obtained in an examination or test. Moreover, teaching methods could be classified as either teacher centered or pupils-centered. Since good teaching methods among other factors play significant role in enhancing pupils’ academic performance, it therefore motivated the researcher to examine the impact of teaching methods on academic performance of pre-primary school pupils in Physical and Health Education in Abak L.G.A.
Teaching methods and Academic Performance of Pre-primary School Pupils in Physical and Health Education
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Pre-primary school is the first level of education which a child is enrolls. Physical and Health Education for Pre-Primary schools is designed to help children in developing physical fitness. But the poor academic performance of pupils in this important subject has become a source of worry to the parents, teachers, and government. The causes of this poor academic performance has been attributed to so many factors such as school factors, pupils’ factors, home factors, environmental factors, teachers’ factors, and including teachers’ teaching methods.
As the result of this pupils’ poor academic performance, the researcher considered it necessary to investigate the contribution of teaching methods on the academic performance of pre-primary school pupils in Physical and Health Education.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to examine teaching methods and academic performance of pre-primary school pupils in Physical and Health Education in Abak L.G.A.
Specifically, the study seeks to:
- Examine the difference in the academic performance of pupils taught using demonstration method of teaching and those taught using role-play method of teaching in Physical and Health Education.
- Examine the difference in the academic performance of pupils taught using discussion method of teaching and those taught using role-play method of teaching in Physical and Health Education.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were raised to guide the study
- Is there any significant difference in the academic performance of pupils taught using demonstration method of teaching and those taught using role-play method of teaching in Physical and Health Education?
- Is there any significant difference in the academic performance of pupils taught using discussion method of teaching and those taught using role-play method of teaching in Physical and Health Education?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:
- There is no significant difference in the academic performance of pupils taught using demonstration method of teaching and those taught using role-play method of teaching in Physical and Health Education.
- There is no significant difference in the academic performance of pupils taught using discussion method of teaching and those taught using role-play method of teaching in Physical and Health Education.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will be of great importance to the pupils, teachers, educational policy makers and other researchers in the following ways: it will help to increase the teachers’ level of awareness and understanding of the use of suitable teaching methods for pre-primary schools. The findings of this study will also provide data to the education stake-holders and curriculum planners for effective policy making. The pupils will also benefit in this study because when the teacher uses appropriate instructional method, their academic performance will be improved. This study will also serve as a reference point to the future researchers.
1.7 Delimitation of the Study
The scope of this study is delimited to teaching methods and academic performance of pre-primary school pupils in Physical and Health Education in Abak L.G.A. The population of this study is all the kindergarten pupils in the study area. The sub-variables adopted are role-play method, and demonstration method.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
The researcher met the following challenges in the course of conducting this research study:
- Time factor: The period of time given for the completion of this study was not enough due to the fact that the researcher had other academic activities to carry out in school as at the time of this study.
- Financial Factor: High cost of transportation to visit the selected schools for this study also constitutes some challenges to the researcher.
- Low level of pupils’ maturity: most of the pupils were unable to read and response to the instrument, then the researcher had to read and explain to each of the pupils.
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
The following terms are defined for better understanding of the study:
- Teaching method: This refers to the ways or skills adopted by a teacher in the process of lesson delivery.
- Demonstration method: This is a method of teaching which involved display of the proper skills in doing something. It involves the use of instructional materials.
- Discussion method: This takes place when verbal exchange of views, opinions or ideas takes place between the teacher and the learners.
- Role-play method: This is a method of teaching where pupils imitate the roles that their class teacher plays.
- Pre-Primary School: This is the level of education which is also known as nursery school, kindergarten or play school. It is a learning space offering early childhood education to children before they begin compulsory education.
- Academic Performance: This refers to the grade of the learners obtained in an examination or test.
- Physical and Health Education: This is a subject for study in Pre-Primary schools which is designed to help children in developing physical fitness
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This chapter presents the review of the related literature under the following sub-headings:
Ø Concept of teaching methods
Ø Demonstration method and academic performance of pupils
Ø Discussion method and academic performance of pupils
Ø Role-play method and academic performance of pupils
Ø Summary of the Review of Related Literature
2.1 Concept of Teaching Methods
Teaching according to William (2015) is a deliberate activity done on the professional manner to bring a positive change on the learner behaviors. According to Jackson (2014), teaching methods could be seen as teaching techniques, it is the approach or various approaches utilized by the teacher to get his learners to achieve an expected result which is optimal learning. It is being propelled by the drive to impart knowledge to the learners in a way that would bring about change in their behavior.
Azikiwe (2018) sees teaching technique as a set of instructional procedures to follow in delivery classroom lesson essentially involves process such as selection, presentation and evaluation of materials to determine whether education goals are attained or not.
Teaching methods according to Ndirangu (2011) are the means whereby the teacher adopts to impart the desired learning experience to the learners. It could also be refer to as the general pedagogy and management style used for classroom instruction. Ayeni (2011) asserted that teaching is a process that involves bringing about desirable changes in learners so as to achieve specific out-comes.
Moreover, John (2015) viewed teaching method as a particular way adopted by a teacher to present his lesson to the learners as such instruction is very vital in any teaching learning process. The method adopted by a teacher may promote or hinder the learning of among pupils. It may sharpen mental activities which are the basic of social power or may discourage initiatives and curiosity, thus making self reliance and survival difficult.
Adunola (2011) maintained that there is no suitable teaching technique that is recommended for teaching any subject by the teacher. But the choice of a particular method or technique of teaching by the teacher is determined by number of factors which include; the content to be taught, the objectives of the lesson which the teacher plans to achieve, availability of teaching resources, the ability and willingness of the teacher to improvise if conventional teaching aids are not available. Other factors to be considered are age of the learners, size of the classroom in terms of the population, and individual difference of the learners to mention but few.
Etuk and Udosen (2019) opine that instruction methods can be categorized into two broad groups which are; conventional technique and psychologically based techniques of teaching. Conventional technique is the teaching methods that have been in use over the years by the classroom teachers. They include; expository/lecture method, discussion method, demonstration method, discovery method, field-trip/excursion method, and simulation/games method.
On the other hand, psychological based instruction methods are method of teaching based on psychological principles consequent upon numerous research findings that emphasize on individual differences, interests, needs, and motivation as major consideration in teaching. Examples of psychologically based instructional techniques are role playing team, teaching, peer to peer technique, individualized instruction and computer assisted instruction.
In addition, teaching methods could also be described as either teacher’s – centered or learner’s – centered. Paulinus (2016) maintained that if the teachers must achieve the objectives of their lesson, they should always make the teaching learner’s – centered. Furthermore, teaching methods is a continuous process that involves bringing about desirable changes in learners through the use of appropriate techniques during the course of teaching/learning.
Adunola (2011) indicated that in order to bring desirable changes in students, appropriate instructional methods used by educators should be best for the subject matter. On the other hand, Ibe (2015) sustained that instruction methods works effectively if they suit learners’ needs since every learner interprets and responds to questions in a unique way.
However, there are difference techniques used by teachers for effective and efficient teaching Pre-Primary School. The techniques include discussion, demonstration, field trip, assignment, co-operative teaching method, guided enquiry, and role-playing among others. Instruction methods are used to impart knowledge to students; they are the means by which the teacher adopts to impart the desired learning experience. Based on the opinion of many researchers and different authors, there is a relationship between teaching methodsand academic performance of students.
2.2 Demonstration Method and Academic Performance of Pupils
Demonstration method is a method of teaching which involved display of the proper skills in doing something Daniel (2018). It involves the use of instructional materials. Kingsley (2014) opined that demonstration method of teaching is one of the teacher’s greatest assets for achieving the set objectives of a lesson and practice in a very short amount of time.
According to Abdullahi (2012), demonstration can be used to introduce a lesson or climax a lesson. It is an attention inducer and a powerful motivator when it is employed to start a lesson. Demonstration technique is a method which involves the display of the lesson content using instructional materials (Etuk and udosen, 2019). This method is ideal for teaching psychomotor skills in which the learners can overtly display the procedures for critical observation by the teacher and his/her peers. Demonstration technique is very well useful for science teaching because the subject teacher carries out the demonstration and students observe. Sometimes, students themselves are allowed to carry out the demonstration while others watch.
Amos (2015) conducted a research study on instructional strategies for effective teaching of Biology in secondary schools in Enugu state. He found out that demonstration method of teaching has significant positive effect on the teaching of science subjects in secondary schools. He also discovered that demonstration technique positively influence academic achievement of students.
Similarly, Arokoyu (2018) carried out a research on learning strategies and academic achievement of primary school pupils with different teaching styles in Rivers State, Nigeria. He found out that when a teacher adopts demonstration technique and the learners used appropriate learning style, it promotes the learners outcome.
Etuk and udosen (2019) asserted that demonstration technique of teaching has the following merits; it provides the needed opportunity for repetition of acts and/or experiment as in science which makes it possible for mastery a particular concept. It is economical in terms of materials and time in handling a particular topic at a stipulated time frame. It helps in developing desirable psychomotor skills in students which otherwise they would have found difficult to learn.
Miline and Otieno (2017) defined demonstration technique as a process of presenting or establishing facts or principles. They further opined that demonstration technique is a procedure of doing or performing something in the presence of others, either as a means of showing them how to do it themselves or illustrate a principle. He added that demonstration help to illustrate a fact or principles, visualize processes, show materials or specimens, portray methods or techniques create a problem situation, stimulate interest, finding information and evaluate pupils achievement.
In another development by Tebabal and Kahssay (2011), demonstration method can be used to provide learning opportunities in classes. They added that when using demonstration technique in classroom, the teacher performs the task, step by step so that the learner will eventually be able to complete the same task independently.
Archibong (2016) also opined that in order to make the demonstration method a success, three things are necessary to be put into consideration; the object being displayed during the demonstration should not be small, clear picture should be used so that the students may understand the concept easily and the students should be able to question teachers in order to remove their difficulties. The characteristics of demonstration method include the following, the demonstration should be done in a simple way, and attention should be paid to all students.
2.3 Discussion method and academic performance of pupils
The discussion method takes place when a verbal exchange of views, opinions or ideas takes place between the teacher and the learners (Adam, 2017). The role of the teacher is that of moderator or facilitator because discussion method is pupils’ centered. Pupils participate actively and their view points are sought on any area of the subject matter under view.
Mbakuwem (2011) opined that in discussion method, the teacher gives the learners a problem to solve; the pupils carefully consider the topic, argue among themselves in a democratic manner, suggest solutions and draw conclusions. Sometimes, a short discussion among the students may take place while the teacher ensures that the pupils’ flow of ideas and contribution lead to the attainment of the specific objectives of the lesson.
The most common type of collaborative method of teaching is a classroom discussion. It is also a democratic way of handling a class where each pupil is given equal opportunity to interact and put forth their views (Vanaja, 2014). He further opined that a discussion can be either facilitated by a teacher or by a learner. This classroom discussion can enhance pupils understanding, add context to academic content, broaden pupil perspectives, reinforce knowledge, build confidence and support community in learning.
According to Erickson (2015), students in a discussion class are not passive listeners neither is the teacher a sole performer. Students are allowed to develop critical thinking, ability, learn to evaluate ideas, concepts and principles.
Discussion teaching technique involves a group of people in a class who come together to exchange ideas, facts, opinions and expressions orally about a topic of mutual concern and interest under a guide of the teacher. In discussion class, the learners talk to each other about the concept or problem until there is an agreeable understanding to it mentally. This method encourages children to be independent of teacher and discover knowledge and also see relationship on their own (Erickson, 2015).
The discussion instruction method is a design that provides opportunity for discussion between teacher and learners. It is a teaching technique that centred on shared conversations, discussions, and exchange of ideas in class. It gives opportunity for all to sit and listen, as well as talk and think, thus emphasizing the process of “coming to know” as valuable as “knowing the right answer”.
In the same vein, Jackson (2014) concluded that discussion technique are more effective than didactic methods for stimulating thought, for personal social adjustment, and for changing attitudes, and are better than the lecture for effectively transmitting information.
Ibe (2015) noted that discussion method concerned with the development of knowledge understanding or judgment among the learners taking part in it. He believes that discussion is more serious than conversation because it requires to be both “mutually responsive” to the different views expressed by the learners.
However, John (2015) recommended that as a matter of urgency, teachers should explore and use discussion techniques of teaching to promote knowledge among learners. He further explained that if discussion technique is properly managed, it will go a long way to improve pupils’ academic.
2.4 Role-play method and academic performance of pupils
Amos (2015) stated that the term “role-play” refers to the method of teaching where pupils imitate the roles that their class teacher plays in the class. It could also be seen as the number of different activities carries out by teachers in the process of lesson delivery, ranging from simple repetition, to more complex simulations which pass through a number of stages.
According to Azikiwe (2018), numbers of advantages have been claimed for role-play. It encourages participation of a large number of students. If it is based on real life situations, both transactional and interpersonal, it is useful method of rehearsal. Some students find role -play easier than free discussion because they do not have to face the cognitive challenge of finding original and intelligent things to contribute (Adam, 2017).
Some students enjoy the opportunity to act and to assume other personae. A role-play which has a clear goal gives a purpose and a direction to the discussion. It is interesting when role-play involves both competitive and co-operative elements.
Moreover, as students take on variety of roles during a program of role-plays, they will practice language which varies according to the setting, the formality of the situation, and the function required for the particular role. William (2015) added that the success of role-play depends on overcoming some of its limitations. Perhaps the main limitation is to do with asking students to take on roles, and whether or not they are able to empathize with the role they choose or are given. This maybe the reality of the student’s own roles in life and “fantasy” of the role imposed.
Paulinus (2016) opined that functional roles do not present a great problem; however professional roles may begin to present difficulty as many role-plays involving transactional language assign one students of a particular role. The problem is exacerbated when roles require students to change their status, personality, or even gender. Ultimately it will depend on the willingness and motivation of students to change personal life style.
In the same vein, Daniel (2018) states that many games include the element of role play improve pupils’ psychomotor domain and help to enhance the academic performances of pupils. There is a need to create classrooms that offer pupils opportunities to exercise their creativity and imagination. Kingsley (2014) maintained that teachers can use modern techniques from communicative approaches that will help pupils to be more active in class. Hence, using role-playing as a classroom activity is one of the new techniques which have been used in the 21st century due to the changes in the educational system, and it helps to increase the motivation of pupils.
Adunola (2011) conducted a research study on instructional strategies for effective teaching of pupils in Primary schools. He found out that role-play method of teaching has significant positive effect on the teaching of pupils in Primary schools. He also discovered that role-play technique positively influence academic achievement of pupils.
Similarly, Archibong (2016) carried out a research on instructional techniques and academic achievement of primary school. His finding revealed that when a teacher adopts demonstrole-play technique and the learners used appropriate learning style, it promotes the learners outcome.
2.5 Summary of the Review of Related Literature
The purpose of this chapter was to presents the review of the related literature to this study. The review was carried out under the following sub-headings: Concept of teaching methods, demonstration method and academic performance of pupils, discussion method and academic performance of pupils, role-play method and academic performance of pupils, summary of the review of related literature. The review revealed that demonstration method, discussion method and role-play method played significant roles on the academic performance of pupils.
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