Studies on the Occurrence of Urinary Tract Infections in Females


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This research work titled “Occurrence of Urinary tract infection in females” aimed at determining the occurrence of urinary tract infections and common bacteria pathogens responsible for the urinary tract infections. Microbial techniques such as Gram staining, biochemical test and urinalysis tests were used in identification and characterization of the micro-organisms from the study it was observed that sample 1 had the highest colony forming units of 3.6 x 102 = 360.

The bacteria isolated include coryne bacterium Spp, vibrio cholera, legionella pneumophila, staphylococci and micrococci luteus. The study therefore recommends routine screening for UTIs among patients and that the appropriate antimicrobials are administered after sensitivity tests have been carried out to prevent and treat urinary tract infections respectively.


Studies on the Occurrence of Urinary Tract Infections in Females




1.1       Background of the Study

Urinary tract infection occur at different ages and among both sexes, but its incidence in females is higher than that of males, considering the female urethra, its proximity to the anus, and hormonal activities. It is one of the most common bacterial infections encountered by clinicians in developing countries including Kenya(Dulczac and Kirk, 2005). A complicated UTI describes infections in urinary tracts with structural or functional abnormalities.

A urinary tract infection may involve only the lower urinary tract, in which case it is known as a bladder infection, which means the infection is confined to the bladder and urethra, this is much the same as cystitis (Yildizet al., 2007). Alternatively, it may involve the upper urinary tract, in which case it is known as pyelonephritis, an infection that affects a kidney and/or tube called a ureter (Riccabona, 2003).

It causes flank pain which is a pain in the side of the tummy (abdomen), often coming from a kidney. If the urine contains significant bacteria but there are no symptoms, the condition is known as asymptomatic bacteriuria. If a urinary tract infection involves the upper tract, and the person has diabetes mellitus, is pregnant, is male, or immuno compromised, it is considered complicated (Salvatore et al., 2011). 

Since the uterus sits directly on the top of the bladder, the increased weight of the uterus, as it grows, can block the drainage of urine from the bladder which results in an infection. However, other factors include upper extremities and increased urinary urethral recurrence as well as reduced bladder size due to uterine contraception which increases the filtration rate thus stressing on the kidneys.


1.2       Statement of Problem

Urinary tract infections (UTI) are some of the most common infections of adulthood (Jakobsonet al., 1999). Since most of the uropathogens are of faecal origin, there is fear that the high levels of antibiotic resistance demonstrated for the enteric bacteria may also exist among the uropathogens (Farajniaet al., 2009).


Studies on the Occurrence of Urinary Tract Infections in Females

1.3       Objectives of the Study

  1. To determine the occurrence of urinary tract infection in females and the common bacterial pathogens responsible for the urinary tract infections.
  2. To isolate and identify bacteria causing urinary tract infections in females using biochemical tests.
  3. To determine the common microbes causing UTI among females.

1.4       Significance of the Study

The results of this study will assist various stake holders to individualize the antibiotics to be administered to persons with UTIs and monitor resistance patterns as well. In addition the study will make valuable contribution to the currently available literature in the field of medical microbiology.

1.5       Research Questions

  1. Which microorganisms are associated with UTIs?
  2. Are these isolates from females resistant to antibiotics?
  3. Which is the most dominant pathogen causing UTI in females?
  4. What are the possible means of treating UTI in females?


Studies on the Occurrence of Urinary Tract Infections in Females

1.6       Scope of the Study

The scope of the study is to discuss the occurrence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in females.

1.7       Limitations of the Study

  1. Financial constraints
  2. Inadequate power supply
  3. Difficulty in acquiring samples for the research
  4. Time constraints


1.8       Definition of Terms

Urine: A watery, typically yellowish fluid stored in the bladder and discharged through the urethra.

Urethra: The urethra is a thin, fibromuscular tube that begins at the lower opening of the bladder and extends through the pelvic and urogenital diaphragms to the outside of the body.

Urinary tract infection: An infection in any part of the urinary system, the kidneys, bladder or urethra.

Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses , and parasites that are not normally present within the body.

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