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Parenting styles and pupils academic performance In mathematics in primary schools




This study was carried out to determine the influence of parenting styles and pupils’ academic performance in Mathematics in primary schools in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area. The population of the study was one thousand two hundred (1200) primary four pupils. One hundred (100) primary four pupils were randomly sampled from two selected primary schools and used for the study. An intact class of fifty (50) primary four pupils was used simultaneous in two different selected primary schools. Research design was quasi-experimental (Equivalent Samples Materials Design). Two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study, while the instrument adopted for this study was parenting styles and pupils academic achievement test (PSPAAT).

Results obtained were analyzed using the t-test statistics. It was therefore revealed that the two null hypotheses tested were rejected at p=0.05 level of significant. This implies that, parenting styles have a great influence on primary four pupil’s academic performance in mathematics in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area. Also, parental involvement in education of their children at home influences their academic performance. Following the above findings, it is recommended that government should organize seminar for parents to be aware of the necessary of parental involvements in the education of their children and also for parents to know the best parenting style to be adopted in grooming their children.



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Table of Contents


1.1    Background to the Study      

1.2    Statement of the Problem

1.3    Purpose of the Study   

1.4    Significance of the Study      

1.5    Research Questions

1.6    Research Hypotheses

1.7    Limitation   of the Study

1.8    Delimitation of the Study

1.9    Definition of Terms


2.1    The Concept of Parenting Style    

2.2    Categories of parenting style

2.3    Effect of Autocratic and Democratic Parenting Style on Pupils Performance

2.4    Effects of Parental Involvement on Academic of Pupils in Mathematics

2.5    Summary of Literature Review


3.1    Area of the Study

3.2    Research Design

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3.3    Population of the Study

3.4    Sample and Sampling Technique

3.5    Instrument for Data Collection

3.6    Validation of Instrument       

3.7    Administration of Instrument         

3.8    Scoring of Instrument  

3.9    Method of Data Analysis       


4.1    Data Analysis and Result

4.2    Discussion of Findings


5.1    Summary   

5.2    Recommendations       

5.3    Conclusion

5.4    Suggestions for further Studies     




Parenting styles and pupils academic performance In mathematics in primary schools




1.1. Background to the Study

Education is the process of developing or training an individual to cope with the challenges of living. The quality of educated individuals available in any society determines its pace of development. The emergence of western form of education brought about the formal education system (that is the school system).

According to Ojerinde (2010) the introduction of this system of education led to the type of education that is planned and provided under classroom situation by trained teachers and instructors. School is a training center to develop pupils into efficient social beings and to train them to further education as the progressive members of the society (Sidhu, 2012). Thus, the school is an entity built by the community or society to realize desirable goals of pupils. We can say that the community builds its schools and the schools are expected to build their community by providing the human capital that will mobilize other material resources. In recent times, much has been written on the issue of education quality.

According to Nweke (2010), Akinyemi (2013), Mamman (2009), Alkali (2008) and Atamda (2002), just to mention but a few, standards in education have been or are falling. To Ojerinde (2013) performance of pupils in public examinations have reminded the visible evidence of falling standards. Researchers have blamed the low standards of education on some factors such large class size, inadequate facilities, inadequate teachers, facilities, funds- and – library material (Talorbi 2009, Mahboob 2008, and Ireogba, 2002).

School is a creation of community and pupils found in schools are from different homes, the home activities go a long way in determining learners success for instance, Bakare (2014) advanced four causative phenomena that could affect individuals scholastic achievement, these include, the child’s attitude, family, school and society from these phenomena, parents stand in the position of the family. This shows the importance of the involvement of parents in the improvement of pupil’s academic performance.

Parental involvement includes a wide range of behaviours, but it generally refers to parents mode of training and investment of resources in their children schooling, parents involvement at home can include activities such as discussion on school, issue helping in homework and reading with children (Dauber, Epstein 2019).

Parental beliefs and perception have also been shown to be strong predictors of parental involvement. In addition, Karback (2011) opined that the more favourable children perceived their parent behaviour towards them, the more they are likely to perform successfully in school.

The style of parenting adopted in different homes affects the children’s disposition. This can be to the development of her child or to the detriment of his or her academic career. Baumimd (2019) attempted to link family interaction to children’s cognitive competence. She postulated three family parenting styles, these are authoritative, authoritarian and permissive, which have consequences on the development, cognitive and social competence of child, she added that, these family types differ in value, behaviors and standards of bringing up their children. 

Effiong (2011), also stated base on the study of Baumrind (2019) that the authoritative which involved accuracy and parental consideration, authoritarian which involves absolute power of the parents and permissive parenting style may affect a child as changing tools for a child’s upbringing either positively or negatively as the child develop independency base on the environmental condition.


1.2  Statement of the Problem

The act of parenting is fundamentally concern with the care of parent to the children. In most homes in Nigeria parenting cares are grossly ineffective in producing desired learning out come in pupils. It has been observed that parents do not have only one style of grooming their children, and some pupil’s performance tends better while some are not better. To this end, a lot of researchers have attributed to the poor performance of pupils to a number of categories of parenting styles as they may affect the academic performance of pupils, either positively or negatively.

Sequel to the poor performance of the pupils, the researcher sought to determine the differences on parenting styles on pupil’s academic performance in mathematics in primary schools in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area.


1.3  Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study was to determine the differences in parenting styles and pupils academic performance in mathematics in primary schools in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area. Specifically, the study sought to:

  1. Determine the difference in the academic performance of pupils whose parents adopt democratic and those with autocratic styles of parenting
  2. Investigate the difference in the academic performance of pupils whose parents involve in their education at home and those whose parents do not involve.


1.4  Significance of the Study

The finding of this study will be of significant to the parent because they would be educated on the extent of parenting styles that will influence their wards positively or negatively. This will assist them in creating conducive home environment, in addition, teachers and school administrators stand to be educated that, there is need to ensure effective link between homes and school so as to guide parents base on the way they should handle their children.

1.5  Research Questions

To guide the study, the following research questions were asked:

  1. What is the different in the academic performance of pupils whose parents adopt democratic and those parents adopt autocratic styles of parenting.
  2. What is the difference in the academic performance of pupils whose parents gets involve in their education at home and those whose parents do not involve.


1.6  Research Hypotheses

To actualize the objectives of the study, the following null hypotheses were formulated and tested to guide the study:

  1. There is no significant difference between the academic performance of pupils whose parents adopt democratic and those with autocratic styles of parenting.
  2. There is no significant difference between the academic performance of pupils whose parents involve in their education at home and those whose parents do not involve.


1.7    Limitation of the Study

Limitations are bound to occur in writing a research of this kind such as:

Financial Constraint: The present economic in the country drastically reduces the available funds needed to cover more institution for this study.

Time:  The limited time give to carryout this research work also posed a great constant as such many schools and duration were limited for the study.

Geographical Factors: The study was limited to two (2)  primary school in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area.

1.8    Delimitation of the Study

The study only concentrated on the parenting styles and pupils’ academic performance in Mathematics in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area.


1.9    Definition of Terms

Autocratic: This is the rigid parenting style which also known as authoritarian style. It is a firm and stiff style of parenting.

Democratic:  This is the positive parenting style in which the children are allowed in the family to make choice and opinion. It is a kind of parenting style that deals with the flexibility in the family.

Parenting involvement:  This is the interest to which the parents have in respect to the education of their children. This involves helping the children to read, assisting them in doing homework etc

Academic performance:   This is the out come of education or the extent to which a pupils, teacher or institution has achieved its educational goals.


Parenting styles and pupils academic performance In mathematics in primary schools




This chapter is concerned with the review of literature related to this research work. The will be done under the following sub- headings:

  1. The concept of parenting styles
  2. Categories of parenting styles
  3. Effect of Autocratic and Democratic parenting style on pupil’s performance
  4. Effect of parental involvement on academic performance of pupils
  5. Summary of literature Review


2.1    The Concept of Parenting Style

The vital need of rearing children by parents is the techniques and strategies adopted in training children in order to contribute to their good academic performance (Martins, 2004). He also recommended that parents do have much interest to the result of their children not minding the IQ and how brilliant a child is. They forget the necessary responsibilities which they suppose to take.

Therefore, parenting style is a psychological construct representing standard strategies that parents use in child rearing. The quality of parenting can be more essential than the quantity of time spent with the child. Some parents do spend entire afternoon with his or her child yet the parent may be engaging in a different activity and not demonstrating enough interest towards the child at home pertaining to his education.

According to Offiong (2011), parenting styles are the representation of how parents respond to the demand of their children. Mactorland (2005) also stated that parenting practices are specific behaviours while parenting styles represent broader patterns of parenting practices.

A child’s temperament and parents’ cultural patterns have an influence on the kind of parenting style a child may receive. Early research of  Fafunwa (2013) in parents who provide their children with proper nurture, independence and firm control are children who appear to have higher levels of competence and are socially skilled and proficient, Additional developmental skills result from positive parenting styles including maintaining a close relationship with others, being self-reliant and independence.

Derling and Steinberg (2003) suggest that it is important to better understand the differences between parenting styles and parenting practice. Parenting practices are defined as specific behaviours that parents use to socialize their children while parenting style is the emotional climate in which parents raise their children. Parenting practice is concerned with the difference between “children out come and continuous measures of parental behaviour” some of the practices listed include the following: support involvement, warmth, approval, control, monitoring and harsh punishment. Parenting practices such as parental support, monitoring and firm boundaries appear to be linked to higher school grades less behaviour problems and better mental health. These components have age limit and can begin early in preschool leading all the way into college.

Locke (2009) highlights the importance of experience to a child’s development and recommends developing their physical habits first, in 2011, the French philosopher Jean- Jacque Rousseau proposed that, early education should be derived less from books and more from a child’s interactions with the world of these, Rousseau is more consistent with slow parenting and Locke is more for concerted cultivation.

Erik (2010), a developmental psychologist proposed eight life stages through which each person must develop in each stage they must understand and balance two conflicting forces and so parents might choose a series of parenting styles that helps each child as appropriate at each stage.


2.2    Categories of Parenting Styles

Parenting styles fall into four broad categories, though different researchers give different names to them. Baumrind (2010) classified the styles to be authoritarian, authoritative, permissive and uninvolved.

Authoritarian: Parent is very strict and controlling. They have a strong sense of justice and of the need for obedience. They’re big believers in clearly stated rules. Such parents take a dim view of being challenged. Thus Researchers believe children of authoritarian parents tend to be timid have low self- esteem, lack spontaneity, and rely to an unusual degree on the voice of authority. Baumrind (2009) stated that, in authoritarian parenting style, verbal exchange between parent and child is discharged. His study of preschool children found that such a mode of family interaction is associated with love level of independence and social responsibility.

Authoritative:  This is the second type described by Baumrind parent of this style are warmer and more communicative than authoritarian parents. The authoritative parents are demanding and responsive. Authoritative parent encourages more freedom of expression. So the child more likely develops a sense of independence. Such kids tend to develop into more competent adults than children brought up in the other styles. In related study Steinberg, Elmen and Mount (2003), found that the authoritative parenting facilitates adolescent academic success.

Permissive: This is the third form of parenting style stated by Baumrind. In this style parents are tolerant and accepting towards the child’s impulses, use as little punishment as possible make few demands for mature behaviours. She found the children of permissive parents as immature, lack impulse control and self-reliance, and exhibits on social responsibility and independence.

Uninvolved: The uninvolved parents demand almost nothing and give almost nothing in return and except near absolute freedom. This style is low in both demanding and responsiveness.

In making certain decision by a child on visiting a place Baumrind summed up the other as follows.   An authoritarian parent may say “No way” with absolute authority.   An authoritative parent may respond “No, I don’t want you to go, but let you and I go at the same time” with considerate authority.   A permissive parent would say “sure, go, and have fun, but be careful.  An uninvolved parent may reply “whatever”.


2.3    Effect of Autocratic and Democratic Parenting Style on Pupils Performance

However, democratic home and loving parents are likely to produce children with much higher cognitive skills (Nwagwu, 2003). The submission of Steinberg, Elmen and Mount (2003) does not differ from this, that adolescents who describe their parents as treating them warmly democratically and firmly are more likely to develop positive attitudes towards and beliefs about their achievement and as a consequence, are more likely to do better in school. Corroborating this, Aremu (2009) found that pupils whose parent adopt the democratic style of parenting are far better in their performance than their counterparts whose parent are autocratic.

Goodmow (2009) and Miller (2011) have shown that positive parenting and child acceptance enhance children’s academic performance. This also makes feel relaxed in old circumstance which include Examination condition (Heward, 2007, Baumrind, 2008, Agbenihae, 2001).

Similarly, Taylor (2005) found that pupil’s whose parent’s adopted autocratic parenting style scored lower grades in school. While pupils whose parents were permission scored lower grades.

Aremu (2001) noticed that, recent pupils place high premium on the importance of positive parenting. He added that, a warm and positive child parent interaction could serve as a boast to academic performance. This study which deals with the influence of child’s academic achievement would shed more light on the role played by the parents at home in the achievement of learners. This means that, the home activities go a long way in determining learner’s success.


2.4    Effects of Parental Involvement on Academic of Pupils in Mathematics

Parent involvement includes, a wide range of behaviors, but it generally refers to parents mode of training and investment. Also, the ability in which parents help their children in the area of reading, doing home work and giving them extra lesson at home makes them to perform well academically in schools.

According to Fass and Tubman (2007), these two researchers investigated that the relationship between parent and children always influence the academic performance of pupils. In the same view, Yazedjan and Toews (2002) examined pupils perception of parental involvement and found out that, pupils reported seeking various forms of parental supports and that, and interactions which were positive in nature always help the child in producing better income academically. Most pupils felt that, their parents supporting them also facilitate their independence by trusting them to make their own decisions.

The studies of Pizzolato and Hicklen (2003) specially examined parental involvement in pupil’s decision making. They found that, when pupils were asked to report an important decision that they made in lives, more than half of the pupils did not solicit parental help in their decision making. While some did so to gain a different perspective on the issue rather than asking their parents to make the decision to them. This findings suggests that, there is a change in the dynamic of the parent-child interaction for pupils where parental input is considered.

2.5    Summary of Literature Review

Parents have a positive effect on the performance of pupils academically if they are involved effectively. Baumrind (2010), summed up the educational value of parenting style with the Chinese proverbs which says that, home is the first learning institution.

To this end, it is theoretically observed that there is a strong relationship between parenting style, parental involvement and academic performance of pupils in mathematics. Since Mathematics is one of the important subjects in school as it contributes to the development of our country.




In this study the focus was on the methodology of the study under the following sub-headings: Area of the study, research design, population of the study, sample and sampling technique, instrument for data collection, validation of instrument, administration of instrument, scoring of instrument and method of data analysis.

3.1    Area of the Study

The study was conducted in Nsit Ibom Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Nsit Ibom was called out from the then Etinan Local government on September 23rd, 1991 with its administrative headquarters at Afaha Offiong.

Nsit Ibom is located within Central Akwa Ibom and share boundaries with Ibesikpo Asutan, Etinan ad Nsit Ibom Local government Areas, with 22 villages in Mbiaso Court area and 36 in Asang Court area. Traditionally, the two court areas, Mbiaso and asang identify themselves along ethnic image. Nsit ibom comprises the following urban communities, Afaha Offiong, Ayam, Oboetim, Ikot Ekong, Obio Okpok, Obo Ntong and Asang.

Nsit Ibom is the third most popular and third most important city in Akwa Ibom state. The people are generally very hospitable, knowledgeable and industrious. According to census report 2006, it was estimated that, Nsit Ibom Local Government Area had a population of 108,611 persons, males 57,750 and females 50,861. The people of Nsit Ibom are the Ibibio ethnic extraction. Renowned scholars, elites and professional have been produced by the Local government Area. The Local government Area is blessed with abundant palm produce in the area. The forest region produces timber for firewood and woodworks.

Nsit ibom local Government Area has twelve (12) primary schools. These schools are well distinguished throughout Nsit Ibom Local Government. The twelve (12) primary schools in these study fall under the two categories of the court areas in the Local Government Area. The people of the area are predominantly of the Christian faith.


3.2  Research Design

In the study, the researchers preferred the use of quasi-experimental design (Equivalent Samples Material Design). This purpose of this design was to ascertain the level of reversibility or entertain the level of reversibility or transient of the result on the analysis.


3.3  Population of the Study

The population of the study consisted of all primary four (4) pupils. This amounted to one Thousand two hundred pupils (1200) from twelve (12) primary schools in Nsit ibom Local government Area.

3.4   Simple and Sampling Technique    

A sample of one hundred pupils were selected using the simple random sampling technique from this, two schools were selected one school was fifty pupils (50) and the other was fifty pupils (50).


3.5   Instrument for Data Collection

The instrument used for the collection of data was achievement test titled “parenting Styles and pupils Academic Achievement Test (PSPAAT). The instrument contained two parts, part 1 contained information on the respondents including pupils name, name of school, sex, class, age, autocratic, democratic parental involvement while section 2 contained 10-items of multiple choice objective test with 4-options letter A-D) lesson note for the treatment were drawn to cover the two schools under the concepts of percentage and ratio.

3.6  Validation of Instruments

The PSPAAT was subject to critical scrutinization by the researcher’s supervisor who did the necessary corrections (as well as professionals in measurement and evaluation). Before typing and presenting to the respondents.


3.7  Administration of Instrument

A permission letter was first obtained from the head of department of ECCE to the headmaster/ headmistress of the selected schools who allowed access to the researcher and the pupils.

The researcher used (50) pupils in primary 4 in one school to study autocratic and democratic parenting styles and academic performance of pupils and also used another (50 pupils in primary four in the other school to study parental involvement on child’s education and academic performance.

Concepts taught in both schools were “percentage and ratio” This was done in two weeks of single periods. Thereafter, the researcher administered the instrument to the pupils based on the concepts taught. The scripts were collected for marking and scoring without anyone missing in the attendance.


3.8  Scoring of Instrument

The main instrument for data collection was achievement test, made of 10-item, of multiple choice questions. Each pupil was scored base on the raw score of pupils in examination in Mathematics. This was done based on the pupils parenting style and parental style and parental involvement test in section 1 above.

3.9  Method of Data Analysis

The score of pupils’ examination in Mathematics base on the response from the respondents on achievement test were analyzed using the independent t-test of the pupils. The null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance.


I am Prince Stephen. The admin of I'm a passionate writer, editor and an experienced educational blogger who writes articles on education, educational research and school news. I based in Afaha Nsit, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

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