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Availability of laboratory facilities and the teaching-learning of computer science in senior secondary schools


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This work was designed to investigate Availability of laboratory facilities and the teaching-learning of computer science in senior secondary schools.The study was conducted in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area. A survey design was used to carry out the study. 38 teachers and principals formed the sample of the study. The instrument used in collecting data was Assessment of Laboratory Resources Available for Teaching of Computer Science Questionnaire (ALRATCSQ) and the data collected were analyzed using simple percentage. The results reveal that human resources, material resources and facility resources needed for teaching of computer science in the schools investigated were not adequate for effective teaching. It was recommended among there that Government should provide enough funds for schools to purchase computer resources and employ applicant with B.Sc. (Ed) and B.Ed. in computer education to teach the subject in our secondary schools. 

Availability of laboratory facilities and the teaching-learning of computer science in senior secondary schools

1.1 Background to the study
Education is one of the leading instruments for promoting economic development as it encompasses some processes individuals go through to help them develop and utilize their potentials. Further Okeke (2007) points out that, through education, individuals acquire knowledge, skills and attitude that are necessary for effective living. According to Onsonu et al (2006), central to the educational process is secondary education which provides a vital link between basic education and the world of work on one hand and further training on the other. Usman (2007) noted that central to the education process are educational resources which play an important role in the achievement of education objectives and goals by enhancing effective teaching and learning. According to Adeogun and Osifila (2008) physical resources include laboratories, libraries, classrooms and a host of other physical infrastructure while material resources include textbooks, charts, maps among others. Akisanya (2010) commenting on educational resources says they are important because the goal of any school depends on adequate supply and utilization of physical and material resources among others as they enhance proper teaching and learning the reason why this study is important. A study by Altbach (2016) noted that nothing has ever replaced the printed word as the key element in the educational process and as a result textbooks are central to schooling at all levels.

According to Owoeye and Yala (2010), in some instances textbooks provide the only source of information for students as well as the course of studies for the subjects Squire (1991) writing on teachers reliance on textbooks stated that those seeking to improve the quality of education in instructional materials would inevitably lead to changes in actual teaching. While the selection of a textbook has been judged to be of vital importance to academic achievement, it is sad to say that relevant books are not available for teaching and learning activities.

According to Odulaja and Ogunwemimo (1989), lack of textbooks could be identified with high cost. Since the educational process functions in a world of books according to Owoeye and Yala (2010), the chief purpose of a school library is to make available to the pupil at his or her easy convenience all books, periodicals and other reproduced materials which are of interest and value which are not provided as basic or supplementary textbooks. They further noted that as a resource the library occupies a central and primary place in any school system as it supports all functions of the school.

According to Fowowe (2012) a library must be up to date and at the same time allow access to older materials. Farombi (2010) argued the saying that seeing is believing as the effect of using laboratories in teaching and learning of sciences and other science related disciplines as students tend to understand and recall what they see than what they hear or were told .The laboratory is essential to the teaching of sciences and the success of any science course is much dependent on the laboratory provision made for it. Affirming this Ogunniyi (2013) said that there is a general consensus among science educators that the laboratory occupies a central position in science instruction.

However, many studies have established that physical and material resources in secondary schools are inadequate in the world all over. For example World Bank (2018) in a study on textbooks and school library provision in secondary education in Sub-Sahara Africa revealed that textbooks and libraries were not only inadequate but unevenly distributed among rural and urban schools in the area of study. Similarly Asiabaka (2018) on effective management of schools in Nigeria noted that the government’s failure to establish policy directive on minimum standards in relation to schools facilities has led to disparities in acquisition. This is because while some have well equipped laboratories, libraries and other facilities for effective teaching and learning others have none and where they exist, such facilities are poorly equipped. On the same vein Olaniyan and Ojo (2018) also noted that lack of textbooks and training manuals was one of the challenges facing successful implementation of introductory technology in Nigerian secondary schools. This is supported by Chiriswa (2012) who noted that effective teaching and learning depends on the availability of suitable adequate resources such as books, laboratories, library materials and host of other visual and audio teaching aids which enhance good performance in national examination.

Notably, Computer education is of paramount important to national development and it is on this premise that the federal government of Nigeria sought to introduce computer studies in the education system from primary through to secondary schools. Education systems around the world face formidable challenges that are taxing conventional strategies. Fresh approaches are needed to address persistent problems of the past and provide students with an education appropriate to the needs of a modern, information-based global economy. Now, after, more than two decades of unfulfilled promises to revolutionize education, computer and communication technologies are finally able to offer opportunities to significantly improve teaching and learning.

In any educational system, the level of available resources places a restriction on the degree to which any new subject can be introduced into the school curriculum, especially where only the most basic facilities have so far is to such importance to the future industrial and commercial health of a country that investment in the equipment, teacher education, and support services necessary for the effective delivery of an ICT –based curriculum should rank high in any set of government priorities. The curriculum proposed takes account of these resource issues and minimum requirements for effective delivery in different circumstances (UNESCO, 2004).

The importance of computer/computer education cannot be over emphasized. The effective teaching and learning of computer in the school system should be accorded priority in any educational system.

The major aim should always be that of assisting teachers and student to do what is expected of them under prevailing environmental conditions. One of the ways of doing this, is to carefully scrutinize the resources available for teaching. Resources for teaching science according to Daluba (2014) could be human (e.g teachers and laboratory assistants); materials (e.g. library, laboratory, teaching aids, classroom etc). facilities (e.g. running water, constant electricity supply, etc); and appropriate chemicals and reagents. There is need to use modern and standard resources for teaching because according to Offormatu (1990) these enable students to improve on their performances.
Aboderin & Solomon (2014) reported that reasonable computer studies are yet to start in Nigerian secondary schools, the computer –student ratio is relatively small, funding by government has not been encouraging, computer education syllabus is unpopular among students and parents and thus hardly implemented, and teachers are inadequate to implement computer education.

Teachers in Nigerian secondary schools cannot implement computer education because majority of the teachers are not competent in basic computer operation and in the use of simple application software (Yusuf, 2005b). Teachers required access to information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure for a number of reasons. These include their need to live as citizens in a world undergoing rapid and major transformations as a result of increase used of ICT, their need to embed ICT use in their teaching and administrative duties and, increasingly, their need to use ICT in their professional studies (Burnip, 2006).

In the cause of Nigeria’s quest to advance technologically and compete favourably with other advanced countries of the world, both human and material resources in the teaching of computer needs to be sought for without delay. It is against this background that the researcher intends to evaluate the state of resources availability for the teaching of computer science in secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State.

1.2 Statement of problem
The benefits derivable from laboratory in schools are enough reasons to provide facilities for effective teaching and learning. The effective utilization of laboratory facilities in teaching and learning depends on the availability of these facilities and teachers competence in using them. This to an extent has hampered teaching and learning process in secondary schools.

Observation from the researcher’s perspectives shows that teachers can make use of laboratory facilities in teaching in schools if available but due to lack of laboratory resources; its utilization is being confronted with so much challenges. Secondary school curriculum have not fully embraced the use of computer in teaching and learning; this is as a result of the prevailing challenges like non-availability of information and communication technology resources and if available non utilization of it.
The principal stock in trade of education is the transmission or transfer of information from the teacher to the learner(s). If there is any technological development that has a very great potential for development in education and can improve education quality, expand learning opportunities and make education accessible, it is the development in ICT where the knowledge of computer cannot be looked down. It is as a result of the great advantages which ICT offers that Nigerian educational reforms stressed the importance of computer technology in schools during 32 ministerial council meeting of the National council on education in 1987 (FRN, 2004).

In the bid to integrate ICT into education in Nigeria for effective teaching and learning to take place, internet services in schools tagged school Net Nigeria was launched in September 2001.

Eleven years after the launched, it is said to note that many secondary schools in Akwa Ibom State may not have computer sets not to talk of internet connectivity. Due to the fact that computer education has failed to take off in the majority of schools in Nigeria, fears are that technological development may be a pipe dream for the country. Given this scenario, it is necessary for this study to look into availability of resources:- human, materials and facilities and teaching of computer science in secondary schools in Essien Udium Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.

Availability of laboratory facilities and the teaching-learning of computer science in senior secondary schools

1.3 Purpose of the study
The general purpose of this study was to examine the Availability of laboratory facilities and the teaching-learning of computer science in senior secondary schools in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area. Specifically, the study sought to:
1. determine the extent of human resources availability for the teaching and conduct of practicals in computer science.
2. determine the extent of material resources availability for the teaching and conduct of practicals in computer science.
3. determine the extent of facility resources availability for the teaching and conduct of practicals in computer science.

1.4 Significant of the study
The findings of this study will be of immense benefit to the teachers, students, educational sector and the society at large.
It will encourage the use of modern instructional materials mostly in the area of ICT for teaching and learning of computer science.
It will also bring to the awareness different competence a computer science teacher should possess to be able to teach the subject well.
Furthermore, it will help educational administrators to adopts computerized system of administration.

1.5 Research Questions
To guide the study, the following research questions were asked.
1. To what extent are human resource available for the teaching of computer science in secondary schools in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area?
2. To what extent are material resources available for the teaching of computer science in secondary schools in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area?
3. To what extent are facility resources available the teaching of computer science in secondary schools in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area?

1.6 Limitation of the Study
Some of the challenges encountered while conducting the research include lack of sufficient funds and short duration assigned for the study.

Availability of laboratory facilities and the teaching-learning of computer science in senior secondary schools

1.7 Delimitation of the study
This study was delimited to secondary schools in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area. Only principals and computer science teachers in schools in the study area were used for the study. Also, the resources that were looked into include human (teachers, laboratory assistance and laboratory technicians); materials (curriculum, library; laboratory, teaching aids, classroom, books) and facilities (Pipe born water, constant electricity supply generator).

1.8 Definition of Terms
Laboratory Resources: In this study, the laboratory resources is defined as facilities such as computer and accessories, human resources and materials needed for the teaching of computer science in secondary schools.
Availability: This is the presence of something, resources and equipment to carry out any operation.
Teaching: this is the concerted sharing of knowledge and experience which is usually organized within a discipline.
Computer: this is the electronic device that accepts data as an input, store and process them electronically to produce the desired output or information with the aid of a set of instructions.
Computer system: this is a programmable machine which responds to a specific set of instruction in a well-defined manner.
Accessories: are those devices which are useful, helpful to the operation of computer.


I am Prince Stephen. The admin of I'm a passionate writer, editor and an experienced educational blogger who writes articles on education, educational research and school news. I based in Afaha Nsit, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

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